At the thought of perusing any list of religious scientists, the question may immediately arise: Why are we told over and over again that the Church was an impediment to science? Confusingly, the answer is because it was. Be it religious, scientific, political or otherwise, bureaucracy is notorious for clinging to tradition in the face of challenge and it has long been noted that power structures tend to favor any course of action that will preserve power. Almost all of the following science pioneers were independent thinkers that were barred from the orthodox churches and universities of their day. The pattern is one that repeats throughout history. The dominant power structure establishes the status quo, and anybody who dissents is labeled a heretic, ostracized or worse yet – executed.